these dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. the treatment of grape procyanidin in a liver cancer xenograft model exerted anti-angiogenic activity in a dose dependent manner by suppressing proliferation of vascular endothelial cells . utilizing hepg2 cells, an in vitro study found that the anthocyanin-rich fraction of black currant significantly inhibited cell proliferation . the subsequent study in a h22 liver cancer cells transplanted rat model corroborated the findings of in vitro study. the antiproliferative activity of xanthones from mangosteen has been demonstrated in several human cancer cell lines from brain, breast and colon. epidemiological studies suggested a favorable role of high consumption vegetables, such as cruciferous vegetables, tomatoes and legumes, in cancer risks, particularly of the digestive tract. the compound displayed a modest inhibition against the growth of hepg2 cells (ic50, 100 μm), without interfering in normal liver wrl 68 cells . a commercial tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine (10:1 mixture of α-tomatine and dehydrotomatine) exerted dose-dependent inhibition against hepg2 cancer cells and was reported to be more potent than the anticancer drug doxorubicin. besides, the promotion of apoptosis via both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway was observed upon asparanin a treatment to hepg2 cells .
s-allylcysteine was observed to suppress proliferation and metastasis of hcc in a metastatic hcc cell line mhcc97l and in vivo xenograft liver cancer model. the oil also induced apoptosis of hepa1-6 cancer cells in a time-/dose-dependent manner in vitro and inhibited inoculated tumor cell growth in vivo . the inhibition of inflammation and promotion of apoptosis were implicated in the protection of ginger against liver cancer. galagin, a flavonol from a. officinarum, could promote apoptotic death of hcc cells in the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway via activation of capase-8 and bid . for instance, the treatment of daidzein at a non-toxic dose enhanced the activity and transcriptionally upregulated the expression of catalase in huh-7 and hepg2 human liver cancer cells . extract from the seed of coix lacryma time- and dose-dependently promoted apoptotic death of hepg2 cancer cells through upregulation of capase-8 . in vitro study reported that the lectin could bind to the surface of liver cancer cells, resulting in apoptotic cell death. in addition, the destruction of lymphocytes and immunosuppression were problems associated with anticancer therapies. these dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. 1guangdong provincial key laboratory of food, nutrition and health, school of public health, sun yat-sen university, guangzhou 510080, china; moc.361@usyseuyuohz (y.z.
in this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against hcc are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of hcc by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. this aim of this review article is to present the current state of herbal medicine as a chemopreventitive and chemotherapeutic agent in hcc. the basic concepts of these “botanical drugs” are emphasized in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of hcc by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formula. the aim of this review was to evaluate the current literature for the efficacy and safety of current herbal compounds in the treatment of hepatocellular cancer. evaluated the effect of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin on tumor angiogenesis of hcc mice. reported that curcumin can inhibit the level of histone deacetylase, enhance the expression of p21(waf1/cip1) protein and mrna in hepg2 cells. also showed that the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hepg2 cells. investigated the effects of resveratrol on proliferation and gap-junctional intercellular communication (gjic) in hepg2 cells. investigated the effect of silibinin on hcc cell growth in four human hcc cell lines: huh7, hepg2, plc/prf/5 and hep3b cells. investigated the effect of tanshinone iia on the growth and apoptosis in hepg2 cells.
they found that treatment with baicalein strongly inhibited the activity of topoisomerase ii, induced apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation the hcc cell lines . using state-of-the-art technology, the techniques of herbal extraction and purification have been dramatically improved and innovated in the chinese herbal medicine industry. they concluded that tj-9 may prevent or delay the emergence of latent hcc in patients with cirrhosis . they found that the productions of g-csf and tnf-α in pbmc of both volunteers and hcc patients were significantly stimulated by bzyqt. investigated the effect of the extracts from lycium barbarum (lbe) and rehmannia glutinosa (rge) on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in both rat (h-4-ii-e) and human (ha22t/vgh) hcc cells. there could be hundreds compounds in the extracts of c. officinalis sieb. investigated the effect of tj-9 on tnf-α and g-csf in peripheral mononuclear cells of patients with hcc accompanied by liver cirrhosis. they observed the anti-hcc effect of qhf combined with cisplatin in a hcc cells implanted mouse model. they concluded that star-99 markedly destructs hcc cells in vivo and it is feasible in the treatment of hcc . the first is the use of composite formula (usually mixed extracts with uncertain ingredients) could result in dramatically different outcome for clinical trials and experimental studies. thus in summary herbal compounds have been shown to be efficacious and safe in small single center studies in the treatment and prevention of hcc and cirrhosis.
accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, it is well known that milk thistle is safe and well-tolerated, and it protects the liver from drug or alcohol-related injury [52, 53]. silibinin and its crude many phytochemicals have proven anti-tumor action including catechins, quercetin in apples and onions, resveratorl in grapes, red wine, peanuts, and ellagic, .
research in the laboratory has shown that milk thistle might help to treat some liver diseases, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis. a few trials have looked at actually, matrine is the prominent bioactive compound in one adjuvant treatment of liver cancer, namely fufang kushen injection, which was approved by chinese extensive evidence has highlighted the clinical application of chinese herbal medicine formulas in cancer therapy. for liver cancer treatment,, .
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